The muskrat is the largest microtine rodent in the United States. It spends its life in aquatic habitats and is well adapted for swimming. Its large hind feet are partially webbed, stiff hairs align the toes, and its laterally flattened tail is almost as long as its body. The muskrat has a stocky appearance, with small eyes and very short, rounded ears. Its front feet, which are much smaller than its hind feet, are adapted primarily for digging and feeding. The overall length of adult muskrats is usually from 18 to 24 inches (46 to 61 cm). Large males, however, will sometimes be more than 30 inches (76 cm) long, 10 to 12 inches (25 to 31 cm) of which is the laterally flattened tail. The average weight of adult muskrats is from 1 1/2 pounds (0.7 kg) to over 4 pounds (1.8 kg), with most at about 2 1/2 pounds (1.1 kg). The color of the belly fur is generally light gray to silver to tan, and the remaining fur varies from dark tan to reddish brown, dark brown, and black.

The name muskrat, common throughout the animal’s range, derives from the paired perineal musk glands found beneath the skin at the ventral base of the tail in both sexes. These musk glands are used during the breeding season. Musk is secreted on logs or other defecation areas, around houses, bank dens, and trails on the bank to mark the area.

The muskrat has an upper and a lower pair of large, un-rooted incisor teeth that are continually sharpened against each other and are well designed for gnawing and cutting vegetation. It has a valvular mouth, which allows the lips to close behind the incisors and enables the muskrat to gnaw while submerged. With its tail used as a rudder and its partially webbed hind feet propelling it in the water, the muskrat can swim up to slightly faster than 3 miles per hour (4.8 kph). When feeding, the muskrat often swims backward to move to a more choice spot and can stay underwater for as long as 20 minutes. Muskrat activity is predominantly nocturnal and crespuscular, but occasional activity may be observed during the day.

Muskrats in the wild have been known to live as long as 4 years, although most do not reach this age. In good habitat and with little competition, muskrats are very prolific. With a gestation period of between 25 and 30 days, females in the southern part of the range commonly produce 5 to 6 litters per year.


Damage caused by muskrats is primarily due to their burrowing activity. Burrowing may not be readily evident until serious damage has occurred. One way to observe early burrowing in farm ponds or reservoirs is to walk along the edge of the dam or shorelines when the water is clear and look for runs or trails from just below the normal water surface to as deep as 3 feet (91 cm). If no burrow entrances are observed, look for droppings along the bank or on logs or structures a muskrat can easily climb upon. If the pond can be drawn down from 1 1/2 to 3 feet (46 to 91 cm) each winter, muskrat burrows will be exposed, just as they would during extended drought periods. Any burrows found in the dam should be filled, tamped in, and covered with rock to avoid possible washout or, if livestock are using the pond, to prevent injury to a foot or leg. Where damage is occurring to a crop, plant cutting is generally evident. In aquaculture reservoirs generally maintained without lush aquatic vegetation, muskrat runs and burrows or remains of mussels, crayfish, or fish along with other muskrat signs (tracks or droppings)are generally easy to observe. (Source: ICWDM – PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WILDLIFE DAMAGE © 1994)